Impact of Positive and Negative Motivation and Music on Jump Shot Efficiency among NAIA Division I College Basketball Players
Does music help players make more shots in basketball? What about positive/negative feedback? We just published a study on this very thing. You can access the whole article here.
The objective of this study was to determine whether music, positive feedback, and/or negative feedback impacted jump shooting performance in NAIA Division I male and female basketball players. Using a cross-over design, participants (N=20) took 50 shots from 15 feet and 50 shots from the 3-point line under four conditions (silence, music, positive feedback, negative feedback). The number of shots made were recorded and a one-way ANOVA was used to determine differences
between gender. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine differences between conditions in shooting performance and to identify differences in gender by condition. Analysis yielded no significant (p>.05) differences between gender or gender by condition. However, significant differences (p<.05) between conditions were noted, as participants had better shooting percentages in silence and music conditions compared to positive and negative reinforcement for shots from 15 feet. Participants also had better shooting percentages in the music condition compared to negative and positive feedback. Silence and music yielded significantly better shooting percentage compared to positive and negative feedback; however, these conditions did not necessarily mimic in-game conditions. Further research must be conducted on player performance during game time situations with negative and positive feedback from the crowd (i.e. home crowd versus away crowd).
This morning in my class I asked my students to do a little experiment for me. They were instructed to stand on one leg with eyes closed and time how long they could stand upright.
Then, in a second trial, I used a brief imagery script in which I had them imagine themselves standing as a tree would stand, rooted solidly into the ground. A tree may sway in the wind, but it does not topple. It remains firm. With this imagery in mind, I instructed them to do the same activity again.
In the first trial my students averaged 41 seconds. In the second trial they averaged 76 seconds, an almost 100% improvement. What changed? A learning effect? Perhaps a small one, but in truth nothing changed other than their focus on the imagery I provided to them.
Now the image of a tree is used in yoga for the tree pose. But it's interesting that something so simple as providing an appropriate image can elicit significant improvements in performance. So why not consider using sport psychology to your benefit? If you're an athlete or coach, allow me to guide you in ensuring that your mental training is efficient and effective.
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